Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
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1.What is MAN?

A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a computer network that usually spans a city or a large campus. A MAN usually interconnects a number of local area networks (LANs) using a high-capacity backbone technology, such as fiber-optical links, and provides up-link services to wide area networks (or WAN) and the Internet.

2.What are the advantages of MAN?

Sharing of resources such as printers,hence cost can send local emails.

3.what is MAN according to IEEE 802-2002 standard?
A MAN is optimized for a larger geographical area than a LAN, ranging from several blocks of buildings to entire cities. MANs can also depend on communications channels of moderate-to-high data rates. A MAN might be owned and operated by a single organization, but it usually will be used by many individuals and organizations.

4.What is wireless MAN?

A Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) is also known as a Wireless Local Loop (WLL).
WMANs are based on the IEEE 802.16 standard. Wireless local loop can reach effective transfer speeds of 1 to 10 Mbps within a range of 4 to 10 kilometres, which makes it useful mainly for telecommunications companies.

5.Give one example for wireless metropolitan area network? 


6.What is the transfer speed of Wireless MAN?

70 Mbps over a radius of several kilometres.

7.Give Common examples of area network types?

  1. LAN - Local Area Network
  2. WLAN - Wireless Local Area Network 
  3. WAN - Wide Area Network 
  4. MAN - Metropolitan Area Network 
  5. SAN - Storage Area Network, System Area Network, Server Area Network, or sometimes Small Area Network

8.Define MAN?

A network spanning a physical area larger than a LAN but smaller than a WAN,such as a city.
A MAN is typically owned an operated by a single entity such as a government body or
 large corporation. 

9.What is (Wireless / Computer) Networking?
In the world of computers, networking is the practice of linking two or more computing devices together for the purpose of sharing data.
Networks are built with a mix of computer hardware and computer software.

10.What is acronym of MAN?

Metropolitan area network

11.Disadvantages of MAN?

if you have too many people connected on the same network, it couyld slow your network down also the network could even crash.

12.Issue of MAN?

sik tauk

13.Some technologies used for MAN? 

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), FDDI, and SMDS. These technologies are in the process of being displaced by Ethernet-based connections (e.g., Metro Ethernet) in most areas. MAN links between local area networks have been built without cables using either microwave, radio, or infra-red laser links.

14.WHY Most companies rent or lease circuits from common carriers?

because laying long stretches of cable can be expensive.

15.Which is the metropolitan area network standard for data communication?

Distributed-queue dual-bus.

16.Which are the notable networks started as MANs?

 The Internet peering points MAE-West, MAE-East,and the Sohonet media network.

17.What is Metro Ethernet?

A Metro Ethernet is a computer network that covers a metropolitan area and that is based on the Ethernet standard. It is commonly used as a metropolitan access network to connect subscribers and businesses to a larger service network or the Internet.

18.What  use of Metro Ethernet business?

To connect branch offices to their Intranet.

19.What Ethernet?How it related to MAN?

An Ethernet interface is much less expensive than a SONET/SDH or PDH interface of the same bandwidth. Ethernet also supports high bandwidths with fine granularity,[clarification needed] which is not available with traditional SDH connections. Another distinct advantage of an Ethernet-based access network is that it can be easily connected to the customer network, due to the prevalent use of Ethernet in corporate and, more recently, residential networks. Therefore, bringing Ethernet in to the Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) introduces a lot of advantages to both
the service provider and the customer (corporate and residential).

20.What is pure Ethernet MAN?

pure Ethernet MAN uses only layer 2 switches for all of its internal structure. This allows for a very simple and cheap design, and also for a relatively simple initial configuration. it was impossible to keep traffic isolated, which made implementation of private circuits impossible. Ethernet MANs
became feasible in the late 90s due to the development of new techniques to allow transparent tunneling of traffic through the use of Virtual LANs as "point to point" or "multipoint to multipoint" circuits.

21.Features of pure ethernet MAN?

VLAN Stacking (also known as VLAN Tunneling), and VLAN Translation, it became possible to isolate the customers' traffic from each other and from the core network internal signaling traffic.

22.which are the other names of ethernet?

Ethernet is constantly evolving and has now carrier class features with the recent addition of IEEE 802.1ad (Provider Bridges)(also known as QinQ or stacked VLANs) and IEEE 802.1ah (Provider Backbone Bridges) (also known as MAC in MAC or PBB)and IEEE 802.1Qay (Provider Backbone Transport) (also known as PBT or PBB-TE).

23.Metro Ethernet network?

Metro Ethernet network is a collection of Layer 2 or/and Layer 3 switches or/and routers connected through optical fiber. The topology could be a ring, hub-and-spoke (star), or full or partial mesh.
The network will also have a hierarchy: core, distribution (aggregation) and access. The core in most cases is an existing IP/MPLS backbone, but may migrate to newer forms of Ethernet Transport in the form of 10Gbit/s, 40Gbit/s or 100Gbit/s speeds.

24.Explain Metro Area Network topology?

Access devices normally exist at a customer's premises, unit, or wireless base station. This is the network that connects customer equipment, and may include ONT and/or Residential gateway, or office router.Aggregation occurs on a distribution network such as an DON segment. Often Passive Optical Network or Digital Subscriber Line technologies are employed, but some using point-to-point Ethernet over "home-run" direct fiber. This part of the network includes nodes such as Multi Tenanted Unit switches, Optical line terminals in an outside plant or central office cabinet, Ethernet in the First Mile equipment, or provider bridges.A Metro Area Network may include transport technologies MPLS, PBB-TE and T-MPLS, each with its own resiliency and management solutions.A Core Network often uses IP-MPLS to connect different Metro networks together.

25.Which are the main shortcomings with a pure non PBT/PBB enabled Ethernet MAN approach?

By design, layer 2 switches use fixed tables to direct traffic based on the MAC address of the endpoints. Network stability is relatively fragile, especially if compared to the more advanced SDH and MPLS approaches. The recovery time for the standard spanning tree protocol is in the range of tens of seconds, much higher than what can be obtained in the alternative networks (usually a fraction of second). There are a number of optimizations, some standardized through the IEEE, and others vendor-specific, that seek to alleviate this problem.

26.Which are the primary purposes used by Ethernet-based MANs?

For small scale deployments (under a few hundred customers), a pure Ethernet MAN can be highly cost-effective.It also has the advantage of not requiring advanced knowledge of IP and related protocols, such as BGP and MPLS, which are necessary for an MPLS-based deployment. Even for larger scale deployments for thousands and thousands of customers can be achieved if careful network design rules are followed.

27.Define SONET/SDH-based Ethernet MANs?

A SONET/SDH based Ethernet MAN is usually used as an intermediate step in the transition from a traditional,time-division based network, to a modern statistical network (such as Ethernet). In this model, the existing SDHinfrastructure is used to transport high-speed Ethernet connections. The main advantage of this approach is the highlevel of reliability, achieved through the use of the native SDH protection mechanisms, which present a typicalrecovery time of 50 ms for severe failures. On the other hand, an SDH-based Ethernet MAN is usually more expensive,due to costs associated with the SDH equipment that is necessary for its implementation. MPLS-based Metro Ethernet against a pure Ethernet MAN?

Scalability: In a properly designed Ethernet VLAN network, each switched path can have 4094 single tag VLANs.Some aggregation and core switches can classify traffic by two VLANs using IEEE 802.1ad VLAN stacking, so with aggregation devices properly placed in the center of a network, end segments and rings of single tag devices can receive only the traffic that they need. When using MPLS, Ethernet VLANs have local meaning only
(like Frame Relay PVC). Same scalability considerations apply to the MAC addresses where in a pure Layer 2 Ethernet MAN all MAC addresses are being shared across the network, although this issue can be managed by smart network design and choosing switches with MAC tables sufficient for the size of network segments.Resiliency: pure Ethernet network resiliency relies on Spanning Tree Protocols STP, IEEE 802.1w RSTP or IEEE 802.1sMSTP (30 to sub 50ms sec convergence depending on network design) while MPLS-based MANs use mechanisms such as MPLS Fast Reroute to achieve SDH-like (50 msecs) convergence times. Metro Ethernet can also utilise Link aggregation or
Resilient Packet Ring where appropriate to add link redundancy and recovery in distribution networks. Some Ethernet vendors' RSTP convergence is also sub-50ms, but this convergence time may vary from vendor to vendor. Ethernet protection switching is also standardised in (ITU G.8031).
Multiprotocol convergence: with the maturity on pseudowires standards (ATM Virtual Leased Line VLL, FR VLL, etc.) an MPLS-based Metro Ethernet can backhaul IP/Ethernet traffic together with virtually any type of traffic coming fromcustomer or other access networks (i.e. ATM aggregation for UMTS or TDM aggregation for GSM), while this could be morechallenging in a pure Ethernet scenario.
End to End OAM: MPLS-based MAN offers a wide set of troubleshooting and OAM MPLS-based tools which enrich Service Providers ability to effectively troubleshoot and diagnose network problems. These include for example,MAC ping, MAC traceroute, LSP ping etc. However there are now Ethernet OAM tools defined in IEEE 802.1ab]],
IEEE 802.1ag[2] and Ethernet in the First Mile (IEEE 802.3ah[3]) for monitoring and troubleshooting Ethernet networks. EOAM (Ethernet Operations, Administration, and Maintenance) is a protocol for installing, monitoring, andtroubleshooting MANs and WANs.

29.Which are the services of Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF)?

  1. EPVL
  2. EVP-LAN
  3. EVPT

30.What is EPVL?

E-Line or Ethernet Virtual Private Line (EPVL), a Point-to-Point Ethernet Virtual Connection — equivalent of Virtual Private Wire Service (VPWS), Virtual Leased Line (VLL).

31.What is EVP-LAN?

E-LAN or Ethernet Virtual Private LAN (EVP-LAN), a MultiPoint-to-MultiPoint Ethernet Virtual Connection — equivalent of Virtual Private LAN Services (VPLS), Transparent LAN Services.

32.What is EVPT?

E-TREE or Ethernet Virtual Private Tree (EVPT), a Rooted-MultiPoint Ethernet Virtual Connection for multicast domains.

33.Define Spanning Tree Protocol?

STP is standardized as IEEE 802.1D. As the name suggests, it creates a spanning tree within a mesh network of connected layer-2 bridges (typically Ethernet switches), and disables those links that are not part of the spanning tree, leaving a single active path between any two network nodes.

34.Define LRG?

Long Reach Ethernet (LRE) was a proprietary networking protocol marketed by Cisco Systems, intended to support multi-megabit (5 to 15 Mbit/s) performance over telephone-grade unshielded twisted pair wiring over distances up to 5,000 feet (1.5 km).[1]Supporting such distance ranges, LRE is technically classified a Metropolitan area network(MAN) technology.[2] the protocol was similar to very-high-bitrate digital subscriber line.

35.Define DQDB?

In telecommunication, a distributed-queue dual-bus network (DQDB) is a distributed mufti-access network.

36.Functions of DQDB?

Supports integrated communications using a dual bus and distributed queuing, (b) provides access to local or metropolitan area networks, and (c) supports connectionless data transfer, connection-oriented data transfer, asynchronous communications, such as voice communications.

37.Example for DQDB?

IEEE 802.6 is an example of a network providing DQDB access methods.

38. who developed DQDB Medium Access Control (MAC) Algorithm?

Robert Newman

39.In which year DQDB was developed?


40.algorithm in his PhD thesis in the 1980s at the University of Western Australia. To appreciate the innovative value of the DQDB MAC algorithm, it must be seen against the background of LAN protocols at that time, which were based on broadcast (such as ethernet IEEE 802.3) or a ring (like token ring IEEE 802.5 and FDDI). The DQDB may be thought of as two token rings, one carrying data in each direction around the ring. The rives reliability which is important in Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN), where repairs may take longer than in a LAN and WiFi because the damage may be inaccessible).

41.Define Wireless network?

Wireless network to any type of computer network that is not connected by cables of any kind.

It is a method by which homes, telecommunications networks and enterprise (business) installations avoid the costly process of introducing cables into a building, or as a connection between various equipment locations.[1] Wireless telecommunications networks are generally implemented and administered using a transmission system called radio waves

42.Example of wireless network?

Wireless MAN.

43.What is Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks?

Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks are a type of wireless network that connects several wireless LANs.

44.Example for wireless MAN?

WiMAX is a type of Wireless MAN and is described by the IEEE 802.16 standard.

45.Example of MAN?

Cable T.V.

46.Define SMDS?

Switched Multi-megabit Data Service (SMDS) was a connectionless service used to connect LANs, MANs and WANs to exchange data, in early 1990s. In Europe, the service was known as Connectionless Broadband Data Service (CBDS).

47.What is SONET?

The SDH standard was originally defined by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI),and is formalized as International Telecommunications Union (ITU) standards G.707,[4] G.783,[5] G.784,[6] and G.803.[7][8] The SONET standard was defined by Telcordia[1] and American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard T1.105

48.Define IEEE 802.6?

IEEE 802.6 is a standard governed by the ANSI for Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN).

It is an improvement of an older standard (also created by ANSI) which used the Fiber distributed data interface (FDDI) network structure. The FDDI-based standard failed due to its expensive implementation and lack of compatibility with current LAN standards

49.Define MPLS?

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a mechanism in high-performance telecommunications networks that directs data from one network node to the next based on short path labels rather than long network addresses, avoiding complex lookups in a routing table

50.Define WiMAX ?

Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access is a communication technology for wirelessly delivering high-speed Internet service to large geographical areas. The 2005 WiMAX revision provided bit rates up to 40 Mbit/s[1][2] with the 2011 update up to 1 Gbit/s for fixed stations. It is a part of a “fourth generation,” or 4G, of wireless-communication technology.

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