Cloud Computing
This article discuss about some of most frequently asked questions about  Cloud Computing ....

1.What is Cloud Computing?

Cloud computing is a marketing term for technologies that provide computation, software, data access, and storage services that do not require end-user knowledge of the physical location and configuration of the system that delivers the services. A parallel to this concept can be drawn with the electricity grid, wherein end-users consume power without needing to understand the component devices or infrastructure required to provide the service.


2.What are the categories of cloud computing?

These services are broadly divided into three categories:  Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) andSoftware-as-a-Service (SaaS). The name cloud computing was inspired by the cloud symbol that's often used to represent the Internet in flowcharts and diagrams.


3.What is Empowerment?

Empowerment of end-users of computing resources by putting the provisioning of those resources in their own control, as opposed to the control of a centralized IT service .


4.Which are the cloud characteristics? 

Empowerment ,Agility,Application programming interface (API) ,Cost,Device ,Multi-tenancy, Scability,Performance,Security 


5.Explain the Cloud Computing security?

Security could improve due to centralisation of data, increased security-focused resources, etc., but concerns can persist about loss of control over certain sensitive data, and the lack of security for stored kernels.[22] Security is often as good as or better than other traditional systems, in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford.


6.What are the layers of cloud computing?

Client,Applicaton,Platform,Infrastructure,server


7.Explain the cloud computing clients?

A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on cloud computing for application delivery and that is in essence useless without it. Examples include some computers, phones and other devices, operating systems, and browsers.


8.Explain cloud computing Applications?
             
Cloud application services or "Software as a Service (SaaS)" deliver software as a service over the Internet, eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computers and simplifying maintenance and support.


9.Explain the cloud computing infrastructure?

Cloud infrastructure services, also known as "infrastructure as a service" (IaaS), deliver computer infrastructure – typically a platform virtualisation environment – as a service, along with raw (block) storage and networking. Rather than purchasing servers, software, data-center space or network equipment, clients instead buy those resources as a fully outsourced service. Suppliers typically bill such services on a utility computing basis; the amount of resources consumed (and therefore the cost) will typically reflect the level of activity.


10.Explain the cloud computing server?

The servers layer consists of computer hardware and/or computer software products that are specifically designed for the delivery of cloud services, including multi-core processors, cloud-specific operating systems and combined offerings.


11.What is public cloud?

A public cloud is one based on the standard cloud computing model, in which a service provider makes resources, such as applications and storage, available to the general public over the Internet. Public cloud services may be free or offered on a pay-per-usage model.


12.What is community cloud?

Community cloud shares infrastructure between several organizations from a specific community with common concerns (security, compliance, jurisdiction, etc.), whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally. The costs are spread over fewer users than a public cloud (but more than a private cloud), so only some of the benefits of cloud computing are realize.


13.Explain Hybrid cloud?

Hybrid cloud is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together, offering the benefits of multiple deployment models. It can also be defined as multiple cloud systems that are connected in a way that allows programs and data to be moved easily from one deployment system to another.

 
14.Explain the private cloud?

Private cloud is infrastructure operated solely for a single organization, whether managed internally or by a third-party and hosted internally or externally.They have attracted criticism because users "still have to buy, build, and manage them" and thus do not benefit from lower up-front capital costs and less hands-on management, essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept.


15.Example of cloud computing?

A simple example of cloud computing is Yahoo email, Gmail, or Hotmail etc. You dont need a software or a server to use them. All a consumer would need is just an internet connection and you can start sending emails. The server and email management software is all on the cloud ( internet) and is totally managed by the cloud service provider Yaho , Google etc. The consumer gets to use the software alone and enjoy the benefits. All the users or consumers need is to get the benefits of using the software or hardware of the computer like sending emails etc. 


16.What are the cloud computing segments?

Cloud computing is broken down into three segments: "application" "storage" and "connectivity." Each segment serves a different purpose and offers different products for businesses and individuals around the world.


17.What does a Shift Towards Cloud Computing Mean?

A paradigm shift to cloud computing will affect many different sub-categories in computer industry such as software companies, internet service providers (ISPs) and hardware manufacturers. While it is relatively easy to see how the main software and internet companies will be affected by such a shift in Ginger's chunky nuggets, it is more difficult to predict how companies in the internet and hardware sectors will be affected


18.Explain IBM cloud computing?

Cloud computing is changing the way we think about technology. Now, computing resources can be rapidly deployed as a service. With cloud computing, you can scale on demand, reduce costs and speed time to market.


19.Explain Cloud service characteristics?

A cloud service has three distinct characteristics that differentiate it from traditional hosting. It is sold on demand, typically by the minute or the hour; it is elastic -- a user can have as much or as little of a service as they want at any given time; and the service is fully managed by the provider (the consumer needs nothing but a personal computer and Internet access). Significant innovations in virtualization and distributed computing, as well as improved access to high-speed Internet and a weak economy, have accelerated interest in cloud computing.


20.Explain private or public cloud computing?

A cloud can be private or public. A public cloud sells services to anyone on the Internet. (Currently, Amazon Web Services is the largest public cloud provider.) A private cloud is a proprietary network or a data center that supplies hosted services to a limited number of people. When a service provider uses public cloud resources to create their private cloud, the result is called a virtual private cloud. Private or public, the goal of cloud computing is to provide easy, scalable access to computing resources and IT services.


21.Explain Cloud computing shares characteristics? 

Autonomic computing — Computer systems capable of self-management,Client–server model — Client–server computing refers broadly to any distributed application that distinguishes between service providers (servers) and service requesters (clients),Grid computing — "A form of distributed and parallel computing, whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks.",Mainframe computer — Powerful computers used mainly by large organisations for critical applications, typically bulk data processing such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning, and financial transaction processing,Utility computing — The "packaging of computing resources, such as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility, such as electricity,Peer-to-peer — Distributed architecture without the need for central coordination, with participants being at the same time both suppliers and consumers of resources.


22.Explain the character multi-tendency?

Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs across a large pool of users thus allowing for: Centralisation of infrastructure in locations with lower costs (such as real estate, electricity, etc.),Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels),Utilisation and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10–20% utilised.


23.Explain reliability of cloud computing?

Reliability is improved if multiple redundant sites are used, which makes well-designed cloud computing suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery.


24.Explain scalability of cloud computing?

Scalability and Elasticity via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained, self-service basis near          real-time, without users having to engineer for peak loads.


25.Explain the history of cloud computing?

The underlying concept of cloud computing dates back to the 1960s, when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organised as a public utility." Almost all the modern-day characteristics of cloud computing (elastic provision, provided as a utility, online, illusion of infinite supply), the comparison to the electricity industry and the use of public, private, government, and community forms, were thoroughly explored in Douglas Parkhill's 1966 book, The Challenge of the Computer Utility. Other scholars have shown that cloud computing's roots go all the way back to the 1950s when scientist Herb Grosch (the author of Grosch's law) postulated that the entire world would operate on dumb terminals powered by about 15 large data centers.


26.Explain cloud computing platforms?

Cloud platform services, also known as platform as a service (PaaS), deliver a computing platform and/or solution stack as a service, often consuming cloud infrastructure and sustaining cloud applications.It facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers.Cloud computing is becoming a major change in our industry, and one of the most important parts of this change is the shift of cloud platforms. Platforms let developers write certain applications that can run in the cloud, or even use services provided by the cloud. There are different names being used for platforms which can include the on-demand platform, or Cloud 9. It's your choice on what you would like to call the platform, but they all have great potential in developing. When development teams create applications for the cloud, they must build its own cloud platform.


27.What are the deliver applications of cloud computing?

Cloud computing providers deliver applications via the internet, which are accessed from web browsers and desktop and mobile apps, while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location. In some cases, legacy applications (line of business applications that until now have been prevalent in thin client Windows computing) are delivered via a screen-sharing technology, while the computing resources are consolidated at a remote data center location; in other cases, entire business applications have been coded using web-based technologies such as AJAX.


28.Who Gains?

Internet-based companies that could gain from a shift towards cloud computing include: ,Amazon.com (AMZN) ,the speculators on,wallstreet 


29.What is IBM Smart Cloud Foundation?

It is offered a cochive set of technologies unparalled time to market,integration and management capabilities for private and hybrid cloud computing.


30.What is the full form of PaaS?

Platform as a service


31.What is the full form of Iaas?

Infrastructure as a service


32.What is a Cloud Service?

A cloud service is a service that is used to build cloud applications. This service provides the facility of using the cloud application without installing it on the computer. It reduces the maintenance and support of the application as compared to those applications that are not developed using the cloud service. The different kinds of users can use the application from the cloud service, which may be public or private application.


33.What are main features of cloud services?

Some important features of the cloud service are given as follows:
Accessing and managing the commercial software. Centralizing the activities of management of software in the Web environment. Developing applications that are capable of managing several clients. Centralizing the updating feature of software that eliminates the need of downloading the upgrades. 


34.How many types of deployment models are used in cloud?

Public cloud ,Private cloud ,Community cloud ,Hybrid cloud 


35.So what are these clouds ?

Clouds are thousands and thousands of computers connected via internet to each other and these computers are shared by companies to host their application and manage data.


36.What are the foundation of cloud computing?

At the foundation of cloud computing is the broader concept of infrastructure convergence (or Converged Infrastructure) and shared services. This type of data center environment allows enterprises to get their applications up and running faster, with easier manageability and less maintenance, and enables IT to more rapidly adjust IT resources (such as servers, storage, and networking) to meet fluctuating and unpredictable business demand.


37.What are the cloud computing deliver applications?

Cloud computing providers deliver applications via the internet, which are accessed from web browsers and desktop and mobile apps, while the business software and data are stored on servers at a remote location. In some cases, legacy applications are delivered via a screen-sharing technology, while the computing resources are consolidated at a remote data center location; in other cases, entire business applications have been coded using web-based technologies such as AJAX.


38.What are the tremendous impact of cloud computing?

The tremendous impact of cloud computing on business has prompted the federal United States government to look to the cloud as a means to reorganize their IT infrastructure and decrease their spending budgets. With the advent of the top government official mandating cloud adoption, many agencies already have at least one or more cloud systems online.[10]


39.Explain the  characters of Empowerment? 

Empowerment of end-users of computing resources by putting the provisioning of those resources in their own control, as opposed to the control of a centralized IT service (for example)


40.Explain the characters of application programming interface?

Application programming interface (API) accessibility to software that enables machines to interact with cloud software in the same way the user interface facilitates interaction between humans and computers. Cloud computing systems typically use REST-based APIs.


41.Where the actual term cloud borrows?

The actual term "cloud" borrows from telephony in that telecommunications companies


42.What is the full form of VPN?

Virtual Private Network 


43.What is intercloud?

The Intercloud is an interconnected global "cloud of clouds" and an extension of the Internet "network of networks" on which it is based.


44.How is cloud computing used? 

Cloud Computing means that your personal files / data such as pictures, music and digital files 


45.What are the more Computing?

Shared Computing,Utility Computing,Grid Computing


46.Is there any hope for cloud SLAs?

Cloud SLAs are far from perfect and yours may not protect your enterprise from anything. Here's how you can get the best SLA possible.


47.Cloud SLAs the next bugbear for enterprise IT?

Service-level agreements are a royal pain to most IT pros, but at least they give you a leg to stand on with providers. Not so with cloud computing; sometimes "buyer beware" isn't enough.


48.Microsoft formalizes cloud computing enterprise licensing?

Microsoft licensing will try and catch up to cloud computing; buy Software Assurance and get "license mobility" for your volume licenses.


49.How realistic is the premise that a business can go to market faster using cloud services?

Particularly among small to medium businesses, there is a considerable advantage to using cloud services to go to market, whether it’s introducing new products and services or being able to expand geographically. There are also opportunities for large clients, specifically global companies. We’re working with a variety of companies on the idea of “minimum business infrastructure,” which is cloud-enabled and allows businesses to set up operations in a new geography quickly. It also lets them better integrate the supply chain or compress or shorten it by using cloud-based services or to deploy those services into a mobile environment more quickly. So even while we’re still somewhat early on with this, it’s easy to see how the availability of a set of standard services being acquired and deployed more rapidly could speed products and services to market and also to new geographies and segments more quickly.


50.Coming from your outsourcing background to now working exclusively with cloud technology, do you see cloud services being very different from other kinds of outsourcing? Is it more a difference in degree than in kind?

Cloud services in their purest form are outsourcing. They move the responsibility for a process or service to a third-party provider. Once you accept it on those terms, you have to evaluate cloud services similarly to the way you evaluate other outsourcing. The first thing to get in place is the right business environment and migration path. The alternatives have to be competitive on the bases of cost, capability, and performance. There are also security and functional requirements to take full advantage of moving to cloud services.







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